References

A working bibliography of the secondary sources that inform this project:
Andrew, Bradley. “Regional Differences in the Size and Composition of Communal Membership: The Shakers, 1850-1870.” Communal Societies 20 (2000): 45–58.

Bestor, Arthur. Backwoods Utopias: The Sectarian Origins and the Owenite Phase of Communitarian Socialism in America, 1663-1829. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf & Stock Pub, 2012.

Blake, Holly Jacklyn. “”Marie Howland—19th-Century Leader for Women’s Economic Independence.” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 74, no. 5 (November 1, 2015): 878–1190.

Fernandez, Kathleen. “Communal Communications: Zoar’s Letters to Harmony and Amana.” Unpublished Paper, 1985, 1–13.

Fogarty, Robert S. Dictionary of American Communal and Utopian History. Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1980.

Guarneri, Carl J. “Reconstructing the Antebellum Communitarian Movement: Oneida and Fourierism.” Journal of the Early Republic 16 (1996): 463–88.

———. “Who Were the Utopian Socialists: Patterns of Membership in American Fourierist Communities.” Communal Societies 5 (1985).

Hoehnle, Peter. “The Communal Wanderings of August Jacobi.” Communal Societies 29 (2009): 41–52.

———. “Communal Bonds: Contact Between the Amana Society and Other Communal Groups, 1843-1932.” Communal Societies 20 (2000): 59–80.

Kitts, James. “Analyzing Communal Life-Spans: A Dynamic Structural Approach.” Communal Societies 20 (2000): 13–25.

Leonards, Chris, and Nico Randeraad. “Transnational Experts in Social Reform, 1840-1880.” International Review of Social History 55 (2010): 215–39.

Morris, James M., and Andrea L Kross. Historical Dictionary of Utopianism. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2004.

Nordhoff, Charles. The Communistic Societies of the United States. Dodo Press, 2007.

Noyes, John Humphrey. History of American Socialisms. New York: Hillary House, 1961.

Okugawa, Otohiko. “Intercommunal Relationships among Nineteenth-Century Communal Societies in America.” Communal Societies 3 (1983): 68–82.

Paterwic, Stephen. Historical Dictionary of the Shakers. Lanham, MD.: Scarecrow Press, 2008.

Sargent, Lyman Tower. “The Social and Political Ideas of the American Communitarians: A Comparison of Religious and Secular Communes Founded Before 1850.” Utopian Studies 3 (1991): 37–58.

Spurlock, John. “The Free Love Network in America, 1850 to 1860.” Journal of Social History 21 (Summer 1988): 765–80.

Trahair, R. C. S. Utopias and Utopians: An Historical Dictionary. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999.